Hello world!

Welcome to WordPress.com. This is your first post. Edit or delete it and start blogging!

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment

外婆回家

周五奋战到12点, 再次与XP一起回家. 当中还有段插曲,给XP打电话时,居然不小心打到前老板那里去了。
周六一早送外婆回家,老人家在我家共住了4个月,想想也蛮不舍得的。 
然后去看了房子,环境很好,但是超级贵的,我算算以目前收入,得40年才能还清。
从周六10点一直睡到周日11点,下午在街上转了圈,去邮局寄了美国国家地理的order form。
这两天休息得太好了!
Circle下周来访,很期待,看来得好好请一顿。
Posted in 涂鸦 | Leave a comment

中外企业文化

连续两天在校对翻译公司帮忙弄的东西, 结果发觉无数错误, 而且文章又专业又长, 我能改的也只是些语法拼写错误. 本来想就这么马虎改完扔出去的,因为后面还排满了任务. 结果经搭老指点,去找了叫我校对的主投诉, 实话实说如果要改这样一个文件的话,还得花1周时间. 结果对方居然表示理解, 让我草拟份投诉信,明日由其出马令对方整改.
 
搭老说, 有问题一定要及时提出,不能发现问题不解决,最糟糕的事情就是让client看到这种不合格的产品. 你给client的是在你能力所及处能做出的最好的产品.由此想到企业文化的问题, 如果在国企会怎么处理这种问题呢? 想必是大家一团和气,有钱一起赚吧. 如果有不懂事的人提出质量问题, 断了关联单位的财路,恐怕你得准备自己走人. 其实我之前也在想贸然提出会不会捅娄子, 所以犹豫是否要说.
 
搭老在改Kinkin的三万字大作, 感觉就像在长征, 改一遍和翻一遍的时间差不多. 不过据其说, kin翻得还不错. 于是心中大喜.
Posted in 涂鸦 | Leave a comment

Grasse

 

格拉斯位于法国南部,出产了世界上大部分最具风情的奇妙香水。

格拉斯素有“世界香水之都”的美誉。它称雄香水界长达四个世纪之久,现在仍然完全配得上这个称号。除了装在华丽瓶子里的香水外,这个小镇还有很多值得游人欣赏的地方。

格拉斯北临戛纳(法国名流富贾的海边度假胜地),两地只有15公里的距离。它离东面的尼斯也很近(30公里车程)。小镇依山傍水,境内森林茂密,峡谷纵横,乡村景色迷人。

与之毗邻的戛纳因其细软的沙滩海岸,夏天十分闷热。然而,海拔三、四百米的格拉斯却终年凉爽宜人。充足的阳光和适宜的温度使小镇及其周边地区成为种植花卉以及生产香水的理想之地。

若要了解香水在格拉斯历史上的重要性,就得去镇上的国际香水博物馆看看。它详细介绍了香水制造的过程,并追溯了香水工业3000年的历史。该馆的镇馆之宝是(法国路易十六王后)玛丽·安托瓦内特的旅行箱。馆内还有一座玻璃暖棚,种植了各种芬芳馥郁的鲜花和植物,游人漫步其中,可亲身感受醉人的花香。

该地区有许多香水工场(包括莫利纳尔,加丽玛,香水沙龙等),全年对公众开放。它们为游人免费提供导游服务。在那里,游人可以观摩香水的制造过程,了解格拉斯在香水工业上的重要历史地位,然后在工场附属的商店购买产品。出售的香水通常被装在映有花朵的精美玻璃瓶中,寓意永恒不朽。

16世纪,法国的香水工业在这里起步。格拉斯曾经是皮革鞣制加工中心,自13世纪以来就以手套制作闻名。随着香水手套逐渐受到青睐,格拉斯转而生产它们。最终,它的香水业超越了皮革业。17世纪,香水商和药剂师开始在格拉斯定居。1729年,香水作坊在此地正式注册。

当今的香水业主要依赖人工合成物质,它已取代花卉,成为香水的主要制造原料。一些古老的作坊被废弃,它们的砖砌烟囱在古镇的南面随处可见,见证了逝去的岁月。以花卉为原料的香水仍很畅销。格拉斯地区的花圃仍沿用了传统的种植方法,尽管和过去相比,它的规模和数量都日益萎缩。(1975年,格拉斯有2200名种花人。到了1997年,只剩下120名玫瑰种植者和20名茉莉花种植者。)

香奈儿五号是世界上最畅销的香水,主要成分是五月玫瑰、茉莉和人工合成麝香。几年前,茉莉花的生产曾受到恶劣天气干扰。为了预防此类事件的发生,香奈儿公司在格拉斯地区买下了自己的农场。在穆尔家族的经营下,该农场每年专门为香奈儿公司提供20吨茉莉花和50吨五月玫瑰。

玫瑰的收获期共六周,从每年的四月至六月。茉莉花的采摘则集中在八、九月份。装有花瓣的麻袋在半小时内被运到附近的香奈儿工厂进行加工。其它农场通常隔天才提取精油,但香奈儿把确保原料的新鲜放在首位。称过重量之后,工人把花瓣装入容量50公斤的大桶中,并将它们耙松,然后用2000升的萃取溶剂漂洗三遍。溶剂可将花瓣中的精油,树脂和蜡溶解出来。

工人将花从桶中取出,剩下的溶剂被蒸煮1个半小时后形成固体,行话叫“凝香体”。它的储存时间可达数年之久。需要精油的时候,只要用酒精来提取它。酒精被蒸发掉后,剩下的就是最纯正的花香了,行话叫“纯香”。在原料中加入各种配料,便可创造出各式各样的香水。

起初,使用香水是富裕阶层的特权。20世纪初,佛朗索瓦.科蒂打破了这一特权,让大众都能买得起香水。他来自科西嘉岛的阿雅克修,是拿破仑.波拿巴的表兄弟。他在格拉斯香水匠的专业指导下学习一年后,1905年在巴黎郊区开设了第一家采用大批量生产方式的香水工厂。20世纪20年代后,许多国家开始生产香水,但法国香水仍被业内行家视作世界上最棒的香水。

 

Grasse: Perfume’s French Center

Grasse, in Southern France, the place where most of the world’s most exotic perfumes are made.

Grasse has been called ‘the perfume capital of the world’ and despite four centuries as the Queen of Perfume it still rightly deserves this title. The town has more to offer the visitor than wonderful ornate bottles of scent.

Situated a mere fifteen kilometers north from Cannes, the French Riviera’s lure for the rich and famous, Grasse is also close to the city of Nice (30 minutes east by car). The town is nestled amongst wonderful countryside enjoying a backdrop of hills, forests, rivers and canyons.

Despite being so close to the fine sand beaches of Cannes, with their stifling heat in summer, Grasse at an altitude of 300-400 meters enjoys a fresher climate all year round. The plentiful sunshine and mild temperatures make the town and surrounding areas ideal for flower growing, and thus ideal for the production of perfume.

The importance of scent in Grasses’ history is brought to life at the Musée International de la Parfumerie — a museum in the town which provides details of the process of perfume manufacture and covers 3000 years of the industry’s history. The museum’s chief treasure is the travel case of Marie Antoinette and the building also houses a greenhouse where the public can experience the all-encompassing, aromatically fragrant plants and flowers growing at first hand.

There are also many perfumeries in the region, including Molinard, Galimard, Salon des Parfums etc, which are open year-round to the public. Visitors can enjoy the free, guided tours provided by the perfumeries, watch the process of perfume manufacture, learn the history of Grasse’s importance in the industry and buy products in the on-site shops. The perfumes on sale are typically packaged in ornate bottles bearing a flower encased for perpetuity in the glass.

The French perfume industry began here in the 16th century. Grasse had been a center for leather and tanning and was famous for glove production since the 13th century. When fashions changed in favor of scented gloves Grasse provided them. Eventually the perfume industry surpassed its’ leather industry. Perfumers and apothecaries began to settle in Grasse by the 17th century and the perfumeries were officially registered in 1729.

Today the industry relies more on synthetic chemicals then on the flowers that were always used. Some of the ancient factories have been abandoned and stand testament to bygone times with their brick smokestacks stretching across the south side of the old town. Perfume made from flower sources is still popular however, and the flower fields around Grasse though smaller and fewer in numbers than they once were, still use traditional methods. (In 1975 there were 2200 flower growers while by 1997 there were only 120 growing roses and 20 growing jasmine.)

Chanel No.5 is the best-selling perfume in the world and its principal ingredients are rose du mai, jasmine, and a synthetic musk. A few years ago jasmine production was disrupted by bad weather and Chanel took the precaution of buying their own farm in the Grasse area. Run by the Muhl family it produces 20 tons of jasmine and 50 tons of rose du mai annually, exclusively for Chanel.

The roses are picked for 6 weeks annually from April to June while jasmine is picked from August until September. Stored in sacks the petals are transported within half an hour at Chanel to the onsite production plant. At other farms extraction of the essential oils tends to take place the next day, but at Chanel freshness is a prerequisite. After weighing they are loaded into huge 50kg vats, raked and washed 3 times using over 2000 liters of the extraction solvent. The solvent dissolves the essential oils, resins and waxes from the petals.

Once the flowers are removed from the vats the remaining solvent is vaporized for 1½ hours, so forming a solid known in the industry as ‘a concrete’. This can be stored for several years and when the essential oils are required, alcohol is used to extract them. Once the alcohol is evaporated what is left is the purest form of floral scent — known as the ‘absolute.’ Blending then occurs to create different perfumes.

Initially, scents were only the privilege of the wealthy, but François Coty from Ajaccio in Corsica changed that by making perfume affordable for the masses in the 1900s. A first cousin of Napoleon de Bonaparte, he studied for a year under the expert tutelage of perfumers in Grasse before opening the 1st mass-production perfume factory on the outskirts of Paris in 1905. After the 1920s many other countries began to manufacture perfume but French perfume is still regarded as the best in the world by scent connoisseurs. 

Posted in 翻译作品 | 3 Comments

The graduates

你第一次聚会后在别人家过夜,你最好的朋友的妈妈问你想不想来一份金枪鱼色拉三明治。你妈常给你做金枪鱼色拉三明治,所以你说:“好的”。可是,当你刚咬了第一口,你意识到你最好朋友的妈妈做的金枪鱼色拉和你妈做的味道完全不一样,不过已经太晚了。你从没想过金枪鱼色拉会有不止一种做法。那面包又是怎么回事?它是褐色的,看起来里面还混有种子微粒。更让人受不了的是,你的好友显然认为他妈的金枪鱼色拉完全正常,他一直就是高高兴兴地吃着这玩意儿长大的。后来,你发现最好的朋友家中的枕头不是用羽毛来填充, 而是用海绵乳胶之类的东西。他家的卫生纸是粉红色的。他们是地球人吗?凌晨二点,你呕吐得厉害,你妈妈过来把你领回家。 

今年有150万人要从大学毕业,结束成绩共舞的校园生涯。在大学里,中途退场,等妈妈接你回家可不是什么酷事。可是确实有很多学生中途放弃了。他们承受着其他形式的精神和肉体痛苦,进而休学甚至退学。几乎有一半大学生根本毕不了业。除去一些优等生和懒惰成性者(数量略胜前者)不论,大学生涯让人神经紧张。 

美国大学素以注重成绩闻名,但他们再怎么看重分数都不过分,因为美国的教育竞争异常激烈,任何细小的差别都事关重大。1960, 大约5000人申请进入哈佛大学,约有30%的人被录取;今年,哈佛大学有23,000名申请者,录取率只有9%录取比率越低门槛越高申请者就越是削尖脑袋想挤进去。不过,竞争激烈却也正说明教育系统正按照美国人希望的那样运转着。美国人希望教育完成两件任务: 大众化和精英化。他们希望确保每个想上学的人都有一个位置, 同时也希望根据个人成就来排定座次。这个系统并不完美:高收入家庭的孩子更有希望竞争到最好的位置。不过位置倒是很多。美国拥有4000多所提供高等教育的机构, 共招收1,700多万名学生。你能说出50所大学的名字吗? 即便你能叫出1000个名字,还有3000个你没听说过的名字。这些学校大多能接纳所有符合条件的申请者。

正是教育精英化制造了压力。精英教育系统是民主 (因为从理论上来说,每个人都站在同一起跑线上)而高效率的 (因为资源不会被浪费在不合格的人身上), 但这也正是焦虑的根源。教育体系越是精英化越开放,越高效,越公平它就会引发越多的焦虑,因为竞争会变得永无止境。你妈妈可没办法跑来帮你那是作弊行为! 你得依靠自己。在奉行精英主义的社会中,你做的每件事情都是一次测验。考试永远不会结束,有的只是一次又一次的测验。人们似乎越来越早地加入到应考大军中。到了一定的时候,这恰恰妨碍了他们继续接受教育。(因为)如果你害怕犯错误,就没办法学下去。

现在,美国大学里最热门的专业是商业。百分之二十二的本科学位被授予了该专业学生。百分之八的学位被授予教育学学生,百分之五被授予医疗卫生领域。与之形成对比的是,大学毕业生中读英语系的人不到百分之四, 只有百分之二的人攻读历史。每年在园林,娱乐休闲和健身方面获得本科学位的人数要超过在所有的外国语言和文学方面获得学位的人数总合。卡内基教学促进基金会在为高等院校分类时已经不再使用“博雅教育”这个概念了。高等教育评论家还在大谈现在的英语专业学生是否必须学莎士比亚。这样看来,这种讨论实在是偏离主题。问题不在于英语专业学生不学什么,而在于别的学生都不修什么。

超过半数的美国人都多少在大学里待过。美国高等教育是世界上最贵的。一所四年制私立学校的每年学费平均要22,000多美元。那么我们想从大学得到什么呢?很难想象能有一个符合所有毕业生的答案。今年大约有150万人毕业,他们都有读大学的经历。没有什么能适合那么多所学校的万能处方。不过,我们可以期待,每个学生都将在某时某地有片刻眩晕的感觉(它不会产生令人不快的副作用)。在毕业典礼之类的仪式上,人们说教育给你提供机会,能开阔你的视野。不过它的另一个作用是教人要有畏惧之心, 告诫人们自己不是衡量万物的尺度。大学给学生的学业经历应该起到与他们儿时在小伙伴家留宿相似的作用。我们想要给予毕业生面对世界的信心,但我们也要让他们在自信心上有所节制。谦卑是好的。现在的世界缺少这点。

 

原文:

The Graduates

by Louis Menand

from New Yorker

 

On your first sleepover, your best friend’s mother asks if you would like a tuna-fish-salad sandwich. Your own mother gives you tuna-fish-salad sandwiches all the time, so you say, “Sure.” When you bite into the sandwich, though, you realize, too late, that your best friend’s mother’s tuna-fish salad tastes nothing like the tuna-fish salad your mother makes. You never dreamed that it was possible for there to be more than one way to prepare tuna-fish salad. And what’s with the bread? It’s brown, and appears to have tiny seeds in it. What is more unnerving is the fact that your best friend obviously considers his mother’s tuna-fish salad to be perfectly normal and has been eating it with enjoyment all his life. Later on, you discover that the pillows in your best friend’s house are filled with some kind of foam-rubber stuff instead of feathers. The toilet paper is pink. What kind of human beings are these? At two o’clock in the morning, you throw up, and your mother comes and takes you home.

College, from which some 1.5 million people will graduate this year, is, basically, a sleepover with grades. In college, it is not so cool to throw up or for your mother to come and take you home. But plenty of students do throw up, and undergo other forms of mental and bodily distress, and plenty take time off from school or drop out. Almost half the people who go to college never graduate. Except in the case of a few highfliers and a somewhat larger number of inveterate slackers, college is a stressful experience.

American colleges notoriously inflate grades, but they can never inflate them enough, because education in the United States has become hypercompetitive and every little difference matters. In 1960, Harvard College had around five thousand applicants and accepted roughly thirty per cent; this year, it had almost twenty-three thousand applicants and accepted nine per cent. And the narrower the funnel, the finer applicants grind themselves in order to squeeze through it. Perversely, though, the competitiveness is a sign that the system is doing what Americans want it to be doing. Americans want education to be two things, universal and meritocratic. They want everyone to have a slot who wants one, and they want the slots to be awarded according to merit. The system is not perfect: children from higher-income families enjoy an advantage in competing for the top slots. But there are lots of slots. There are more than four thousand institutions of higher education in the United States, enrolling more than seventeen million students. Can you name fifty colleges? Even if you could name a thousand, there would be three thousand you hadn’t heard of. Most of these schools accept virtually all qualified applicants.

What makes for the stress is meritocracy. Meritocratic systems are democratic (since, in theory, everyone gets a place at the starting line) and efficient (since resources are not wasted on the unqualified), but they are huge engines of anxiety. The more purely meritocratic the system—the more open, the more efficient, the fairer—the more anxiety it produces, because there is no haven from competition. Your mother can’t come over and help you out—that would be cheating! You’re on your own. Everything you do in a meritocratic society is some kind of test, and there is never a final exam. There is only another test. People seem to pick up on this earlier and earlier in their lives, and at some point it starts to get in the way of their becoming educated. You can’t learn when you’re afraid of being wrong.

The biggest undergraduate major by far in the United States today is business. Twenty-two per cent of bachelor’s degrees are awarded in that field. Eight per cent are awarded in education, five per cent in the health professions. By contrast, fewer than four per cent of college graduates major in English, and only two per cent major in history. There are more bachelor’s degrees awarded every year in Parks, Recreation, Leisure, and Fitness Studies than in all foreign languages and literatures combined. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, which classifies institutions of higher education, no longer uses the concept “liberal arts” in making its distinctions. This makes the obsession of some critics of American higher education with things like whether Shakespeare is being required of English majors beside the point. The question isn’t what the English majors aren’t taking; the question is what everyone else isn’t taking.

More than fifty per cent of Americans spend some time in college, and American higher education is the most expensive in the world. The average annual tuition at a four-year private college is more than twenty-two thousand dollars. What do we want from college, though? It is hard to imagine that there could be one answer that was right for each of the 1.5 million or so people graduating this year, one part of the college experience they all must have had. Any prescription that had to spread itself across that many institutions would not be very deep. One thing that might be hoped for, though, is that, somewhere along the way, every student had a moment of vertigo (without unpleasant side effects). In commencement speeches and the like, people say that education is all about opportunity and expanding your horizons. But some part of it is about shrinking people, about teaching them that they are not the measure of everything. College should give them the intellectual equivalent of their childhood sleepover experience. We want to give graduates confidence to face the world, but we also want to protect the world a little from their confidence. Humility is good. There is not enough of it these days.

Posted in 翻译作品 | Leave a comment

海港大桥

1932319日,新南威尔士州州长杰克·兰为悉尼海港大桥当时最伟大的工程杰作之一举行了开通仪式。该桥成为杰克逊港(即悉尼港)令人瞩目的地标,迅速赢得了声誉。它的建筑风格反映了一个工业时代的终结。

大桥将悉尼城(道斯角)和北岸(麦尔森角)连接起来,免去了舟车劳顿之苦。以前居民在悉尼和帕拉玛塔间往返,要么乘渡船,否则就要沿港口的前滩走很长的陆路。

早在1815年,弗朗西斯.格林威就向总督麦克阿瑞提议建造一座连接道斯角和杰克逊港北岸的大桥。

这个想法直到许多年后才得以实现。在联邦时期,民众普遍需要一座跨海大桥。政府从1900年开始征集设计样稿,但是应征样稿皆因不合适或不如意而未被采纳。此后造桥的热情开始消退。

第一次世界大战结束后,人们开始认真考虑造桥的事情。1923年,招标开始,要求是设计一座拱桥或者悬臂桥。布莱德菲尔德博士负责为招标过程设定规程,并率领团队对大桥的设计和建造进行全程监督。现在悉尼仍有一条以他的名字命名的布莱德菲尔德公路。它是大桥在陆地的一个组成部分,也是通往大桥的必经之路。

当局采纳了多门朗公司提交的拱桥设计书。多门朗公司位于英格兰米德尔斯布勒,其顾问工程师拉尔夫.费里曼爵士对大桥进行了精心设计。大桥的设计类似于纽约的地狱门大桥。地狱门大桥建于1916年,其跨度略短于海港大桥,但却要比后者容易建造得多,因为它只设有四条火车轨道。

1924年,悉尼海港大桥开工。首先造的是它的陆地入口部分和引桥,居住在沿线的800户家庭被迫搬家,未获得任何赔偿。

当时,位于港口两端的大桥基座各需要安装四个钢制推力支座。

桥基被固定在地下12米(39英尺)的砂岩中。在港口两端的岩床中各开挖了36米(118英尺)长的锚固隧道。巨大的螺栓将推力支座和支撑物固定在一起。

有趣的是,大桥两端伫立着的四座塔楼主要是为了审美需要而存在的。它们比水平面要高出90米。工程师在设计悉尼海港大桥时,不但要考虑到它的实用性,还要力图使它赏心悦目。桥塔由混凝土铸成,外面覆以产自新南威尔士南岸莫鲁亚市的灰色花岗岩。

大桥初建成时,钢筋混凝土还未被广泛使用。以跨度而论,海港大桥现在名列世界第二或第三位,但它凭借着卓越的承载能力和近50米宽的路面,至今仍被视为世界同类型桥中最伟大的杰作。

当地居民叫这座桥“衣架”,现在才习惯把它称作。大桥在麦尔森角西侧的一个工地分段建造。大约80%造桥所需的钢材来自英格兰,其余20%则在澳大利亚当地生产。人们在港口两端同时建造桥拱,并以钢缆支撑它们。1930年,两边的桥拱成功合龙。接下来的任务是从桥中央向两岸铺设桥面,因为这样比把起重机弄回桥塔要省事。

1932年,悉尼海港大桥正式开通,它是当时世界上最大跨径的单跨钢拱桥。它的主跨为503米(1,650英尺),用去52,800多吨重的硅基钢桁,由大约600万颗铆钉将钢板固定。桥上可过汽车,火车和行人。大桥及其引桥前后共花费了八年时间建成。

大桥东边的两条车道原先是电车道,因为上世纪50年代悉尼废止了电车,遂被辟为它用。如今,大桥共有八条汽车道和二条铁路。东边的一条车道现在被改为公车专用道。大桥上常常是车水马龙,络绎不绝。1992年,海港隧道开通,帮助分流了交通量。相比隧道开通之前,大桥上的交通流量显著减少了。

1932年的物价水平计算,大桥耗资达几百万澳元。1988年,这笔债务最终被还请,但此后仍征收过桥费,用于桥梁养护。

海港大桥通车前,为了测试它的承重能力,人们曾将火车,电车和公交车全部开上大桥,把整座桥塞了个满满当当。那也许是它负重最厉害的一次,尽管后来它曾见证过很多交通拥堵,甚至在它建成50周年之际,还有50万人在其上步行而过。

 

 

Sydney Harbour Bridge 

When the Sydney Harbour Bridge was opened by the Premier of New South Wales, Mr Jack Lang on the 19th March 1932, the Harbour Bridge was one of the greatest engineering masterpieces of its time. Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour) had an impressive and instantly famous landmark made in a style that reflects the end of an industrial era.

The bridge joined the city of Sydney (at Dawes Point) to the North Shore (at Milsons Point) obviating the need to travel by ferry or make a substantial trip around the harbour foreshores towards Parramatta and back.

As early as 1815 Francis Greenway proposed the building of a bridge from Dawes Point to the northern shore of Port Jackson, to Governor Macquarie.

Many years were to pass before the vision became a reality. Around the time of Federation there was a well-recognised need for a bridge crossing and design submissions were invited in 1900, all were deemed inappropriate or unsatisfactory for one reason or another and the momentum lapsed.

Serious initiatives started after the end of World War I. Tenders were called for in 1923 either an arch or a cantilever bridge would meet the requirements. Dr J.J.C. Bradfield was responsible for setting the parameters of the tendering process. He and his staff were to ultimately oversee the entire bridge design and building process. The Bradfield Highway, which is the paved section of the bridge and its approaches, still bears his name to this day.

The tender of Dorman Long and Co. Ltd., of Middlesborough England for an arch bridge was accepted. The Dorman Long and Co’s Consulting Engineer, Sir Ralph Freeman, carried out the detailed design of the bridge. The design was similar to New York’s Hell Gate Bridge built 1916. The Hell Gate Bridge was a little shorter in span but was much lighter in construction as it only carried four railway tracks.

Work first began on the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1924, with construction of the bridge approaches and the approach spans. As many as 800 families living in its path were displaced without compensation.

During this time the foundations on either side of the harbour were prepared to take four steel thrust bearings. 

The foundations, which are 12 metres (39 feet) deep, are set in sandstone. Anchoring tunnels are 36 metres (118 feet) long and dug into the bedrock at each end. Large bolts and nuts are used to tie the thrust bearings onto their supports.

It is interesting to note that the four pylons are actually placed mainly for aesthetic reasons on each corner of the bridge. The pylons are about 90 metres above the average water level. The Sydney Harbour Bridge design had to perform functionally and be pleasing to the eye as well. The pylons are made of concrete that is covered by grey granite from Moruya on the south coast of New South Wales.

When the bridge was constructed the use of reinforced concrete was in its infancy. Today the Harbour Bridge ranks second or third in the world in terms of span but it is still considered to be the greatest of its type in the world because of its load bearing capacity and width of nearly 50 metres.

Known locally as the ‘coat hanger’ and now more commonly as ‘the bridge’, the bridge was manufactured in sections on a site on the western side of Milsons Point. About eighty percent of the steel came from England while the remaining twenty percent was manufactured here in Australia. The construction of the arch was begun from both sides of the harbour with cable support for the arches. In 1930 the two arches met. The construction of the deck then proceeded from the middle outwards towards each shore as this was easier than moving the construction cranes back to the Pylons.

In 1932, when the Sydney Harbour Bridge was opened, it was the longest single span steel arch bridge in the world. The main span is 503 meters (1,650 feet) across it consumed more than 52,800 tonnes of silicon based steel trusses. The plates of steel are held together by around 6 million steel rivets. It originally carried road transport, trains and pedestrians. From start to finish, the bridge and its approaches it took eight years to complete.

The two eastern lanes were originally tram tracks . They were converted when Sydney abolished its trams in the 1950s. Today it carries eight traffic lanes and two railroad lines. One of the eastern lanes is now a dedicated bus lane. The bridge is often crowded, and in 1992 the Harbour Tunnel was opened to help carry the traffic load. The traffic levels were substantially reduced compared to the period before the tunnel opened.

In 1932, the original cost of the Bridge was several million Australian pounds. This debt was eventually paid off in 1988 but the toll was then used for maintenance.

Before the Harbour Bridge opened, it was completely packed with railway carriages, trams and buses to stress test its load bearing capacity. While it has had many traffic jams since and half a million people walked across it on its 50th anniversary it has probably never been asked to carry that much of a load since. 

Posted in 翻译作品 | Leave a comment

满月

极其艰苦的一个月,终于上满了一个月的班,活下来了。
在满月前一天才签了正式合同,过程蛮搞笑的。
手头还有一堆东西,circle说我真不容易,我答:其实还行。
忠实读者Sister XP问你到底悟到什么了?我答不上来。
一个比较含混的答案:尽人事,听天命。
是大家都知道的东西,但我想说的是能在两者前达到一个平衡很难。从混沌到略有所悟,我花了十年的时间。
又到周末,贴点以前做的东西(经Circle润色),给各位读者消遣下。 
Posted in 涂鸦 | Leave a comment

有点领悟

今天晚上特别凉爽, 风很大, 很舒服。难得凉爽的夏日。
在填一串入职的登记表时,突然发觉自己初中毕业已经10年了。于是思绪很跳跃。
想起读书时的种种内心冲突和曲折。想起自己真正应该追寻的东西。想起与Sister XP一起出游的日子。。。。。。
舅舅拿来了月饼,马上要中秋了,日子过得真快啊。
Posted in 涂鸦 | Leave a comment

办护照

上午去办了护照, 为了去传说中要去的济洲岛
办完直接去了单位,结果门开了半天都没开出来, 还是工作狂老板跑出来开了门.
于是和老板相安无事地各做各的事情, 过了会他的秘书也来上班了.
进度缓慢,因为比较不想干活,明日得继续.sigh
Helen小姐鼓励kinkin说: 投入体验, 不要想别的. 记下来作为座右铭.
晚上跟Helen聊到新闻,我说记者的最高境界还是在社会新闻, 不是财经. 财经记者固然很让人尊敬,但范围太窄太专业了.

我说的社会新闻是得普里策奖的那种.

Posted in 涂鸦 | Leave a comment

本周回顾

昨日第二次与Sister XP一块回家,这日子确实不是好过的。今日只睡了4个半小时。
因为对工作一点都不熟悉,所以翻起来又慢又容易出错。
尚有40页(二个D)要英变中,明日只能继续去上班了。
出来的时候赶上老外们在会议室drink,去打了个招呼。回来的路上在想,我真正的兴趣应该不在这里。应该不是在为几个措辞争来争去的生活。
认识一个叫Vici的老外,其在名片上对自己的描述只有两个字:Writer/Editor,甚至都没有写是哪个单位的。觉得能这样写真棒。
除了好的地方,来这里后也发觉了一些问题。其实有人的地方都有问题出现的。总体来说,关系不是太复杂。但其实上下的界限还是很清楚的,用同事的话说,是有等级观念。本地人和外籍人士是二个圈子。就我处的位置来说,有点像两个圈子的交界。搭老则完全与外籍人士打成一片。
这周其实很忧虑,加上事情很多,所以没有更新日志。Sister XP昨日还跟KK说起,怎么我不写了呢。觉得要调节下状态。
还有件好笑的事情,为了业务需要,我们这的老外一律要起中文名字,最近一个老外的中文名字居然用了跟kinkin一样的姓,太好玩了!!所以我见了面跟她说,我们是Sisters。
Posted in 涂鸦 | Leave a comment